3D Printing of Buildings: Construction of the Sustainable Houses of the Future by BIM
3D printing building technology is a new construction technique started with the invention of 3D printer. The latest technologies were described in this paper by pointing to Contour Crafting as a promising technique that may be able to revolutionize construction industry in near future. It has many advantages of this technology, such as reduction of the costs and time, minimizing the pollution of environment and decrease of injuries and fatalities on construction sites could be listed. Integration of Building Information Modeling with the 3D printing building technique is mentioned in comparison with the traditional construction techniques. Even though many advantages and benefits of the integration of new technology in construction industry. Modeling a 3D model of a building that will be appropriate for 3D printers is possible in many modeling software programs. One of the most popular formats for sharing such models is STL format common and it has been accepted by much proprietary software. Moreover, integration of BIM method with 3D printing modeling will be effective for energy efficiency, better design, cost reduction and isolation of structure.
3D printing could offer the following benefits:
• Onsite or factory applications.
• Printed products only use as much material as needed to form them. This means fewer resources are required and less waste is generated.
• Reduced transportation costs if products are printed on-site.
• Potential to create more efficient and interesting designs as 3D printing can achieve shapes that conventional techniques cannot.
• Lower labor costs.
• Reduced cost of customized design (with 3D printing, it costs the same to create one item as to produce thousands.)
• Reduced health and safety risks if 3D printing can be used to produce assemblies that would otherwise need special equipment and precautions to be taken.
Current challenges to be overcome include:
• More expensive than conventional construction due to high cost of 3D printer and lack of familiarity in the industry with 3D printing technologies and applications.
• Currently, a limited number of materials have been used, although experimentation is underway with printers capable of using multiple materials to produce more complex assemblies.
• 3D printers can be large and, therefore, difficult and costly to place on-site.
• 3D printing incurs more up-front costs to create a digital model that will result in safe, cost-effective products.
• Printers are currently slow compared to conventional construction, although they can be operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
• The potential of a disruptive impact on the type of skills and labor needed to design and build homes