How many types of facades are there?
The facade is a fancy word for exterior, especially the outer surface of a large building. How a facade is used in architecture varies greatly depending on the context of the building it is being applied to. Different facade areas are used to disguise the building to draw attention to specific parts. There are many kinds of facades, and they all have benefits and drawbacks.
1. 6 Types of Modern Facade Design
Six main modern facade designs have developed over time and are still in use today:
• Ceramic facades
The structure of ceramic facades is made up of stacked ceramic tiles and mortar. The tiles are usually available in different sizes and shapes, allowing the architect to customize the design to fit their needs. The most common colors used with ceramic facades are white, black, and gray. Ceramic facades are marketed as being easy to maintain, but the truth is that the tile must be regularly cleaned or replaced because it does not withstand weathering conditions well.
• Stone composite panels
Stone composite panels are made up of a thin layer of stone, usually limestone or granite, with two thin layers of porcelain or fiberglass sandwiched in between the two. These facades have the appearance of solid stone walls, but they are made up of a minuscule amount of stone. The composite stone panels are fragile and can be easily chipped away by passersby, so they must be used only on vertical surfaces like balconies.
• Precast concrete panels
Precast concrete panels are made up of precast concrete that is usually in thin layers. These panels are generally laid on an exterior wall surface with a thin layer of mortar or a primer to hold it in place. The panels come in different sizes and shapes, so the architect can customize the design to meet their client's needs. These fragile precast panels make them easy to maintain and repair by adding more layers or replacing damaged parts.
• Concrete plastered walls
Concrete plastered walls comprise layers of concrete and plaster, which act as insulation against extreme weather conditions. These walls keep the inside temperature consistent by blocking outside temperatures and climate. Concrete plastered walls can also be molded to look like other materials, allowing the architect to customize the facade to look like a stone or brick wall.
• Glass and glazed exterior curtain walls
Glass and glazed curtain walls are made up of glass frames wrapped with plastic film. These walls are designed to be durable and maintenance-free, but they usually could be more attractive. The glass in these facades usually hides the building's structure, which is essential for architects when choosing what type of facade to use. Glass and glazed exterior curtain walls are waterproof and fireproof, making them ideal for commercial use buildings such as offices or factories.
• Green facades
Green facades comprise simple green-colored panels and glazed curtain walls made from energy-efficient materials. Green facades have become very popular in recent years because they keep buildings cool, reduce energy needs, and are more environmentally friendly. Green facades are usually made of rainwater-resistant materials, making them easy to maintain. Green facades allow energy to be absorbed and then released slowly into the atmosphere at night, enabling buildings to remain more relaxed during the day.
2. What is a Common Facade?
There are many different types of facades that architects use depending on the purpose of the architecture. A common facade is used to hide or signify the overall structure of a building. When an architect is designing a building, they must choose what type of exterior facade to add on top to depict the overall structure of their building.
• Corten steel
Corten steel is used in buildings for long-term use and has become very popular recently. It is usually exposed only at the front and back faces of a building, which are usually made of glass. Corten steel is available in many different colors and can be easily repaired and maintained, which is attractive to architects because it increases the life of the building.
• Brick facade
Brick facades are used to disguise the structure of a building and are made up of large bricks that look like they would fit right into a traditional brick house. Brick facades are sturdy and easy to maintain because they do not require maintenance but cannot withstand weathering conditions.
• Precast concrete panel
Precast panels are made up of thin layers of concrete stacked on each other and held together with a mortar or primer. They come in different sizes and shapes and can be easily replaced after damage when necessary. The concrete panels can also be coated with plaster, stucco, or paint, making the facade look more appealingance.
3. What Are the Characteristics of a Facade?
Architects use numerous different types of facades depending on what the facade is designed for in the architectural structure. There are several characteristics that architects look for when creating a facade:
• Architectural function
When designing a facade, architects must choose what type to add to their structure to show off how it looks from the outside. Architects generally select one facade with an aesthetic appeal because it will not affect how well it holds up against extreme weather conditions, allowing for more exposure for the architectural structure.
• Structural strength
Architects look for facades capable of holding up against extreme weather conditions because they often face harsh weather conditions during their lifespan as structures.
Facades must also withstand extreme weather conditions to maintain their structure and stabilize the building.
• Appearance and Aesthetic appeal
Aesthetically-appealing facades are usually very thin, made from lightweight materials, or have a very elaborate appearance. The facade must look appealing to the public and be designed to attract many different architectural styles. That allows for more exposure to the architectural structure and interest from others.
4. What Material Is Used for the Facade?
Different materials are used to create facades for buildings and other structures. The most popular materials are:
• Concrete and plaster
Concrete is the most commonly used for facades because it easily molds into different shapes, colors, and textures. Architects can create smooth surfaces or rough textures with concrete depending on what they wish to depict.
• Natural stone and stucco
Another popular material for making facades is natural stone because it comes in many different colors that can be molded easily into many different shapes. Natural stone is also very durable and has a very natural appearance, creating contrast with the rest of the structure.
• Metal, wood, and glass
Metal is used in different types of construction to create a highly professional-looking facade. Most metal facades are made of stainless steel or aluminum and can be easily painted or stained to match any other building color. Wood can also be used in structures for its natural look and durability. When choosing to use metal in your structure, you must be sure it is designed for extreme weather conditions.
The use of the facade has evolved significantly throughout history, and it continues to grow today as new technologies become available to architects. A facade is an essential part of the architecture that serves a purpose and must be used correctly to meet that purpose. The best way for a facade to be used is to be attractive and functional simultaneously.